Roadway Departure References
Carrasco, O., J. McFadden, and P. Chandhok. “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Shoulder Rumble Strips on Rural Multi-lane Divided Highways in Minnesota.” 83rd Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington DC, 2004.
Federal Highway Administration. Roadway Departure Safety. Last accessed March 2015.
Gonzalez, Richard P., Glenn R. Cummings, Herbert A. Phelan, Madhuri S. Mulekar, and Charles B. Rodning. “Does Increased Emergency Medical Services Prehospital Time Affect Patient Mortality in Rural Motor Vehicle Crashes? A Statewide Analysis.” The American Journal of Surgery 197 (2009): 30-34.
Graham, Jerry L., Karen R. Richard, and Douglas W. Harwood. Safety Evaluation of the Safety Edge Treatment, Year 1 Interim Report. MRI Project No. 110495.1.001. Midwest Research Institute, 2008.
Griffith, M. S., “Safety Evaluation of Rolled-In Continuous Shoulder Rumble Strips Installed on Freeways.” 78th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 1999.
Hallmark, Shauna, Tom McDonald, and Robert Sperry. Evaluation of Rumble Stripes on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Iowa—Phase II (PDF). Center for Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University, 2011.
Hallmark, Shauna, Tom McDonald, Ye Tian, and David J. Andersen. Safety Benefits of Paved Shoulders. Center for Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University, 2009, updated 2010.
Hallmark, Shauna, Neal Hawkins, and Omar Smadi. Evaluation of Low-Cost Treatments on Rural Two-Lane Curves. Center for Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University, 2012.
Hallmark, Shauna, Neal Hawkins, and Omar Smadi. Evaluation of Dynamic Speed Feedback Signs on Curves: A National Demonstration Project (PDF). Federal Highway Administration, 2015.
Hallmark, Shauna, David Veneziano, Tom McDonald, Jerry Grahan, Rushi Patel, and Forrest Council. Safety Impacts of Pavement Edge Drop-off. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 2006.
Mueller, B. A., F. P. Rivara, and A. B. Bergman. “Urban-Rural Location and the Risk of Dying in a Pedestrian-Vehicle Collision.” Journal of Trauma 28 (1988): 91-94.
Nambisan, Shashi and Shauna Hallmark. Lane-Departure Safety Countermeasures: Strategic Action Plan for the Iowa Department of Transportation, Institute for Transportation, Iowa State University, 2011.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Contrasting Rural and Urban Fatal Crashes 1994-2003. Report DOT-HS-809-896, 2005.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Traffic Crashes Take their Toll on America’s Rural Roads. Report DOT-HS-810-658, 2006.
Patel, R. B., F. M. Council, and M. S. Griffith. “Estimating the Safety Benefits of Shoulder Rumble Strips on Two Lane Rural Highways in Minnesota: An Empirical Bayes Observational Before-After Study.” TRB 86th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Washington, DC, 2007.
Perrillo, K., The Effectiveness and Use of Continuous Shoulder Rumble Strips. Federal Highway Administration, Albany, NY, 1998.
Sayed, T., P. deLeur, and J. Pump. “Impact of Rumble Strips on Collision Reduction on BC Highways: A Comprehensive Before and After Safety Study.” TRB 89th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Washington, DC, 2010.
Smith, E. B. and J. N. Ivan. “Evaluation of Safety Benefits and Potential Crash Migration Due to Shoulder Rumble Strip Installation on Freeways in Connecticut.” TRB 84th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Washington, DC, 2005.
Torbic, D. J., J. M. Hutton, C. D. Bokenkroger, K. M. Bauer, D. W. Harwood, D. K. Gilmore, D. K. Dunn, J. J. Ronchetto, E. T. Donnell, H. J. Sommer III, P. Garvey, B. Persaud, and C. Lyon. NCHRP Report 641 Guidance for the Design and Application of Shoulder and Centerline Rumble Strips. Washington DC, 2009.
Zwerling, C., C. Peek-Asa, P. S. Whitten, S. W. Choi, N. L. Sprince, and M. P. Jones. “Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes in Rural and Urban Areas: Decomposing Rates into Contributing Factors.” Injury Prevention 11 (2005): 24-28.