Rural Intersection References

Amparano, Gene, and David A. Morena. Senior Mobility Series: Article 4 Marking the Way to Greater Safety. Public Roads. Volume 70, No. 1. July/August 2006.

Antonucci, Nicholas D., Kelly K. Hardy, Kevin L. Slack, Ronald Pfefer, Zikhron Yaacov, and Timothy R. Neuman. Volume 12: A Guide for Reducing Collisions at Signalized Intersections. NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Transportation Research Board, 2004.

Arnold, E. D and K. E. Lantz. Evaluation of Best Practices in Traffic Operations and Safety: Phase I: Flashing LED Stop Sign and Optical Speed Bars. Report FHWA/VTRC 07-R34. Virginia Tech Research Council, 2007.

Atkinson, Jennifer E., Brian E. Chandler, Vernon Betkey, Karen Weiss, Karen Dixon, Anna Giragosian, Kelly Donoughe, and Cara O’Donnell. Manual for Selecting Safety Improvements on High Risk Rural Roads. Report FHWA-SA-14-075. Federal Highway Administration, 2014.

Carstens, R. L. and L. D. Berns. Roadway Lighting on Secondary Roads in Iowa. Iowa Department of Transportation, 1984.

FHWA. Two Low-Cost Safety Concepts for Two-Way STOP-Controlled, Rural Intersections on High-Speed Two-Lane, Two-Way Roadways. Publication FHWA-HRT-08-063. Federal Highway Administration, Research, Development, and Technology, McLean, VA, 2008.

FHWA. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (MUTCD). U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2009.

Fitzpatrick, Kay, Susan Chrysler, Srinivasa Sunkari, Joel Cooper, Hyung-Jung Park, and Laura Higgins. Modern Traffic Control Devices to Improve Safety at Rural Intersections. Report 0-6462-1. Texas Department of Transportation, 2011.

Gates, Timothy J. and H. Gene Hawkins. Applications for Advanced Sign Sheeting Materials. Report 0-4271-S. Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), 2004.

Golembiewski, G.A. and B. Chandler. Intersection Safety: A Manual for Local Rural Road Owners. Report FHWA-SA-11-08. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety, 2011.

Green, Eric R., Kenneth R. Agent, Monica L. Barrett, and Jerry G. Pigman. Roadway Lighting and Driver Safety. Report KTC-03-12/SPR247-02-IF. Kentucky Transportation Center, University of Kentucky, 2003. Iowa DOT. Iowa Strategic Highway Safety Plan: July 1, 2013 – December 31, 2016. Iowa Department of Transportation, 2013.

Iowa DOT. Iowa Strategic Highway Safety Plan: July 1, 2013–December 31, 2016. Iowa Department of Transportation, 2013.

Iowa DOT. 2014a. Iowa DOT Design Manual, Chapter 6, 6A-7. 

Iowa DOT. 2014b. Iowa DOT Traffic and Safety Manual, Chapter 18, 18A. Office of Traffic and Safety, Iowa Department of Transportation.

Isebrands, Hillary, Shauna Hallmark, Wen Li, Tom McDonald, Howard Preston, and Richard Storm. “Roadway Lighting Shows Safety Benefits at Rural Intersections.” ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering (2010): 949-955.

Isebrands, Hillary, Shauna Hallmark, Zach Hans, Tom McDonald, Howard Preston, and Richard Storm. Safety Impacts of Street Lighting at Isolated Rural Intersections – Part II. Minnesota Department of Transportation, 2006.

Minnesota Local Road Research Board. Impact of Flashing LED Stop Signs on Crash Reduction and Driver Behavior. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN. 2014.

Neuman, Timothy R., Ronald Pfeffer, Kevin L. Slack, Kelly Kennedy Hardy, Douglas W. Harwood, Ingrid B. Potts, Darren J. Torbic, and Emilia R. Kohlman Rabbani. NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 5: A Guide for Addressing Unsignalized Intersections. National Highway Cooperative Research Program, 2003.

Persaud, B., C. Lyon, K. Eccles, N. Lefler, and R. Amjadi. Safety Evaluation of Increasing Retroreflectivity of STOP Signs. Federal Highway Administration. Report FHWA-HRT-08-047. Washington, DC, 2008.

Preston, H. and T. Schoenecker. Safety Impacts of Street Lighting at Isolated Rural Intersections. Report MN/RC-1999-17. Minnesota Department of Transportation, 1999.

Ripley, D. A. Quantifying the Safety Benefits of Traffic Control Devices: Benefit-Cost Analysis of Traffic Sign Upgrades. 2005 Mid-Continent Transportation Research Symposium, Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University, 2005.

Roberts, S. E. and F. W. Walker. “Influence of Lighting on Accident Frequency at Highway Intersections.” Transportation Research Record No. 562 (1976): 73-77.

Stein, William J. and Timothy R. Neuman, Mitigation Strategies for Design Exceptions. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety. 2007.

SUDAS. 2014. Iowa Statewide Urban Design Standards. 

Winn, Michael and Ed Rice. Embedded LEDs in Signs. Report FHWA-SA-09-006. Federal Highway Administration, 2009.

Wortman, R. H., M. E. Lipinski, L. B. Fricke, W. P. Grimwade, and A. F. Kyle. Development of Warrants for Rural At-Grade Intersection Illumination. Illinois Cooperative Highway Research Program Series No. 135, University of Illinois, 1972.