About the research
While pedestrian safety countermeasures contribute to reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes, their impacts on winter maintenance operations are sometimes overlooked during design. There is a need to investigate the best practice guidance and solutions for the design, installation and maintenance of pedestrian safety features for year-round maintenance. To address this, we conducted a search of literature as well as agency interviews to identify and document current best practices for designing and implementing pedestrian safety countermeasures for year-round maintainability. The countermeasures reviewed included curb ramps, crosswalk markings, corner radii, curb extensions, refuge islands, and speed humps and raised crosswalks. The information collected allowed for the development of conclusions and recommendations for these features. The design dimensions and features of pedestrian curb ramps are established by the Americans with Disabilities Act and should have a slope of greater than 1:12 and a maximum cross slope of 1:50. Durable materials can be used for crosswalk markings, and these can be grooved into the pavement to provide protection from abrasion. Bulb-outs should use a 1:2 or 1:3 upstream taper and a 1:3 downstream taper. When used, tight radii of 15 feet or less should be employed. Refuge islands can range from 6 feet or greater in width, 24 feet to 40 feet in length, with a 4-foot or greater walkway width. Finally speed humps and tables should be between 3-4 inches in height, with lengths of 12-14 feet (humps concave in shape) and up to 22 feet (tables).